- They're most energetic spouts of energy known so far, i.e. of energy densities which becomes close to upper limit of GUT scale.
- They're propagating over whole universe, i.e. at space-time distance scales close to lower limit of GUT scale.
The above is valid just from moderate gamma ray flashes, generated in stellar implosion or collisions. UECRS, which are coming from very distant areas of Universe (fortunately) are formed mostly by collisions of galactic black holes (AGN) and as such they're propagating like bullets or solitons through cosmic space - which effectively means, both visible, both gamma ray portion of remote flash arrives to Earth at the single moment again. The photon pulse of UHECR is distorted and breaks up by its own gravity, condensing into one or more gravitationally localised objects, which are propagating through distant space as a single body without dispersion.
This behavior is essentially welcomed by some string theory proponents, because string theory is basically a particle theory, not a field theory, so it can describe nonlinear effects connected to particles by hidden dimensions concept - but it gets into troubles when explaining of nonlinear field phenomena, like Lorentz symmetry violation in vacuum (being Lorentz symmetry based theory). Various quantum gravity theories - the LQG theory in particular - are dual to string theories from certain perspective, so they become a more successful in description of nonlinear properties of vacuum. This is particularly because the quantum gravity theories are based on combination or general relativity and quantum mechanics, not just a special relativity and quantum mechanics, like string theories - so they can become a bit more general in this point. The soliton behavior of UHECR is explained by various mechanisms, like the axion–photon conversion or by gravitino-neutrino coupling.
By AWT the observation of UHECR can be explained by considering of three facts, which follows from AWT rather directly. The first two points explains, why existing mechanism of gamma ray formation may lead to more energetic flashes, then current theory predicts. The third point explains, why such energetic flashes doesn't suffer gradual dispersion, so we can observe them even over whole universe.
- The collapse of neutron stars into black holes enables a substantial portion of matter to escape in form of energy
- The black hole merging exhibits an hysteresis due the surface tension effects of space-time curvature, similar to merging of mercury droplets.
- The short intensive flashes can propagate at long distance in non dispersive way, i.e. like solitons.
Merging of black holes considers the formation of thin neck with negative curvature of space, which manifest itself by repulsing antigravity force. By classical theory the antigravity action results into increasing of rotational momentum, which slows down the coalescing of massive bodies into account of gravitational waves (the energy of transversal waves converts into longitudinal ones in process of symmetry breaking). At the moment, when surface tension is overcomed, the black hole coalesce under release of activation energy, which is released in form of longitudinal gravitational waves and transversal waves of gamma radiation.
Even the tiny mercury droplets (which are full of free electrons) exhibits a repulsive force at the distance, which prohibits them in merging due their surface tension. Thus is because their merging requires the formation of thin neck with strong negative curvature, which is always source of repulsive force in nature. At the moment, such droplet will become very close, a suddenly merging occurs, because the negative gradient will change into positive and the repulsive force will change into attractive one. It means, the process of ultra-dense massive bodies proceeds in much more vigorous way (i.e. atemporarily from outer perspective) under radiation of much more energy in both transversal (gamma ray), both longitudinal (i.e. gravity) waves, then relativity theory predicts.
This behavior is in fact the consequence of Aether theory driven by classical mechanics, by which the most pronounced gradient of gravity field remains at the surface, not at the center and it manifests by its own energy density (surface energy). Albeit the mercury droplet behavior of free electrons isn’t very pronounced in metals, it dictates the behavior of chemical bonds between atoms during chemical reactions and charge transfer in semiconductors, which can be interpreted by mercury droplet model in many cases.