Sunday, June 14, 2009

Can dimensionful quantities change?

This post is a reaction to recent deduction of Lubos Motl "Changes of dimensionful quantities are unphysical", presented on his blog. As Lubos belongs between conservative proponents of formal approach to theoretical physics, string theory in particular, his stance can be understood easily in this context. String theories are rather large group of quantum field theories, which are based on combination of quantum mechanics and special relativity postulates - between many others, which are specified less or more vaguely by math formalism used. Because Lorentz invariance belongs special relativity postulates, it's evident, string theory cannot derive violation its own assumptions, i.e. Lorentz invariance violation in rigorous way with compare to quantum gravity theory, which is general relativity based, so it uses a different postulate set. Therefore we can understand negativistic stance to all theories dual to Lorentz invariance, which are considering the changes in fundamental quantities, the "varying light speed" theories in particular.

In AWT Lorentz invariance is completely matter of observational perspective. The gravitational lensing can be interpreted both like manifestation of variable light speed in vacuum near massive object (an exsintric perspective of quantum mechanics), both like manifestation of constant light speed in curved space-time (an insintric general relativity perspective). The observer, which is deformed together with space-time inside of gravitational lens would have an tendency to consider light speed invariant and space-time deformed, unfortunately its rather abstract and local stance, as real observer usually cannot stay at the center of gravity lens (for example at the center of Sun or large galaxy).

The crucial point is the definition of fundamental SI units here, the meter and seconds units in particular. Until 1975 light speed was defined by using of iridium meter prototype since the second can be defined more precisely than the metre, in 1983 the metre was re-defined to be the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1299,792,458 of a second, making the speed of light in vacuum a defined constant, c = 299,792,458 m/s. By AWT the omnidirectional space-time expansion can be interpreted as a fall of observable matter into black hole, the surface gradient of which is forming space-time. During this process vacuum becomes more dense gradually, so that transversal waves of light spreads more slowly through it, which the observer inside of it can interpret as an expansion of space-time. Whereas the observer which is using exsintric perspective would see the collapse of vacuum foam instead - from this reasons the cosmological constants differs so much in relativity and quantum mechanics. In SI system of units meter unit cannot change with density of vacuum and the second unit can change only if mass of cesium atoms will change with respect to kilogram unit, which may occur only, if cesium atoms will change their mass in dense vacuum in different way, then the iridium alloy. After then even gravity constant and fine structure constant may change (compare the Expanding Earth theory). The decrease of gravity constant would increase the frequency of supernovae used as a standard candles for measurement of distance and change our understanding of acceleration of Universe expansion observed. Recent measurements of a possible variation of the gravitational constant showed an upper limit for a relative change of 5•10-12, while Expanding Earth theory needs a variation ten times higher than that measured. Changes in dimensionless fine structure constant observed in distant quasars and Oclo reactor are still unconfirmed.

From insintric perspective the massive bodies would expand together with space-time, but because space-time is preexpanded already, massive objects smaller then human/CMB distance scale (1,7 cm) would collapse slowly then the vacuum and they would shrink effectively, whereas larger object would expand faster in the form of radiation (i.e. they would evaporate in vacuum into bosons), until they fill the volume of the whole universe like gummi bears inserted into hot watter. It's evident, if we would measure the distance by wavelength of light, this distance wouldn't change, but the large massive objects would expand gradually and they would evaporate losing their mass. This prediction of AWT was confirmed recently, because iridium meter prototypes are still used for fitting of interferometers results.

The changes in kilogram prototype seem to be consistent with this finding, although the "Shrinking Kilogram Mystery" can be the consequence of abrasion due the primitive and somewhat drastic "cleaning methods", especially the usage of hot vapor, followed by mechanical wiping (note that the poor etalon is even manipulated without gloves). Iridium-platinum alloy is soften, then the chrome plated steel - so I'm a bit surprised personally, the changes in kilogram prototype mass aren't just a much bigger.

When rigid body meter prototype is used, the light speed could slow down gradually, because of increasing vacuum density with compare to matter density. From historical observations follows, such possibility cannot still be excluded with certainty.

From implicate topology follows, every system of physical quantities will remain always inconsistent by definition - if it would be fully consistent, we could replace all quantities by single one. It means, the change in one constant will affect the others in unpredictable way from less or more distant perspective. Analogous situation exists in theories based on at least two mutually inconsistent postulates: if these postulates will be consistent, we could replace them by single one, thus obtaining a tautology. This means, no theory can remain universally valid, or it couldn't be falsified (compare the AWT approach to Goedel's theorems). Therefore the finding of universally invariant quantity corresponds the finding of generally valid TOE. By AWT such quantity in gradient driven reality could serve the quantity of change as defined by polyomino algebra.

20 comments:

Zephir said...

In new paper name "Empirical evidences in favor of a varying speed of light" Yves Sanejouand summarises results from lunar laser ranging, the Pioneer anomaly, supernovae redshifts and the known fixed constants, namely fine structure and Rydberg. He finds that the varying speed of light hypothesis is (a) consistent with all these results.

El Cid said...

Zephir,

I'm sorry, but the speed of light in a vacuum is a fundamental physical constant. Not only is constant, but also this value is the same for all observes.

Zephir said...

That's OK, "vacuum" is a term of wide comprehension here.

Zephir said...

Various measurements indicate that this distance (or at least the length of the Earth's semimajor axis) is increasing at the rate of 15 cm per year (plus or minus 4 cm). By Lorenzo Iorio at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Pisa, Italy Sun ought to sweep up dark matter as it moves through the galaxy. Iorio says it should have encountered about 200 times its own mass in dark matter during its travels. That means the density of dark matter in the Solar System should be increasing.

Instead of this, I'd rather reconcile this finding with omnidirectional space-time expansion, just after then we should consider some local effects.

Zephir said...

Is Light Slowing Down?, Research from Y.H. Sanejouand (via
Riofrio's blog)

Zephir said...

Jupiter is undergoing climatic changes and under attack of many asteroids in recent time and in my opinion it's not accidental at all. This cloud could affect the path of many
asteroids, which could be imported into solar system by now
http://www.newsci...nts.html


Many other possible impacts I presented here:
http://www.reddit...ontext=3

Zephir said...

Do you remember the disaster 2012 movie? Maybe it was quite correct at both factual, both physical level. 2012 movie was based on idea, neutrinos gone wild and they melted the Earth core. It looks like apparent nonsense, but recently was found, the increase of neutrino flux can really accelerate the decay of heavy elements.

http://www.tasc-creationscience.org/other/plaisted/www.cs.unc.edu/_plaisted/ce/neutrino.html

http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.3283
http://www.astroengine.com/?p=1382
In addition, neutrinos are considered to be a constituent of dark matter. Active (left-handed) ones alone account for some 9.5% dark matter, so sterile (right-handed) ones with similar mass are needed to achieve about 19%.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/86/59001
Evidence of global warming can be observed across whole solar system.
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread221608/pg1
There are another indicia of hypothesis, Earth is passing through dark matter cloud, which possibly surrounds the approaching invisible massive object. Massive objects would swell in more dense vacuum surrounding the invisible object and kilogram or meter prototypes would expand and lost its mass, when compared with younger copies of it.
http://www.physorg.com/news108836759.html
http://www.physorg.com/news64.html
The change of vacuum density influences the speed of light and distances between planets
http://physics.verticalnews.com/articles/3088699.html
In this context it may be significant, the decay speed of some radioactive elements was observed increasing
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/36108
Radioactive Potassium May Be Major Heat Source In Earth's Core
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/12/031215072752.htm
Note that the marine watter contains rather large amount of potassium, too. The total activity of ocean water exceeds 3.8 x 10E+11 Ci (14000 EBq). What will happen, if some process would accelerate its decay by let say one percent?
http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/natural.htm
Solar minimum caused the cooling of atmosphere, but the temperature of ocean is still raising.
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/42356
It looks like something is heating it from bottom up. The source could be the geothermal heat from faster decay of radioactive elements inside of Earth core.
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/42356
In this article the earthquakes became five times more energetic, then before.
http://tinyurl.com/y3bu7ya

Zephir said...

History of the Light-Speed Debate

Zephir said...

Regarding the gravity constant changes, this recent Nature article may be of some relevance for someone:

Recent measurements of gravitational constant increase uncertainty over accepted value.

http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100823/full/4661030a.html

Zephir said...

Lunar Laser Ranging Test of the Invariance of c (critique)
Lunar Laser-Ranging Detection of Light-Speed Anisotropy and Gravitational Waves

Zephir said...

Shnoll and collaborators have discovered strange repeating patterns of random fluctuations of small structure constant measure with speed of nuclear decay of plutonium 239 Pu in a given time interval.

Zephir said...

Like many of its inhabitants, the Earth is getting thicker around the middle. The increased bulge is due to the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

Zephir said...

IMO the recent changes in kilogram prototype mass are consistent with dilatation of iridium meter prototype observed, with variations of gravity constant, fluctuations of small structure constant and changes of speed of light based on lunar ranging experiments (compare the historical observations).
There are many additional indicia for hypothesis, the Earth is passing through dark matter cloud, which possibly surrounds the approaching invisible massive object, galactic plane or comes from black hole explosion at the galactic center. In such case the attempts for redefinition of kilogram unit wouldn't help the situation a lot, because the other constants would change accordingly anyway.

Zephir said...

Are Physical Constants Really Constant?ll

Zephir said...

[Krasinsky and Brumberg report](http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.2469) a secular increase in the Astronomical Unit of 15cm/yr + or – 4cm. The AU is about 1.49 X 10^11 m. So, over a revolution of one orbital period, the fractional addition due to the anomaly is 1 yr X d(AU)/dt/AU, as an approximation ranging from 1.275 down to .738 X 10^-12. [Williams & Boggs report](http://arxiv.org/abs/0911.1890) a secular trend of about 3.5 mm/yr + or - 1.2 mm in the moon’s eccentricity (which is about 0.3 mm/ revolution). The semi-major axis distance to the moon is about 384,399 km. So, over a revolution of one orbital period of one month or 1/12 yr, the fractional addition due to the anomaly ranges from 1.019 down to .499 X 10^-12. An attempt for empirical explanation with tidal drag and External Field Effect of MOND. Compare the Lorenzo Iorio: Effect of Sun and Planet-Bound Dark Matter on Planet and Satellite Dynamics in the Solar System and Vera Rubin Is the physics within the Solar system really understood?, Influence of Dark Matter on Light Propagation in Solar System. Arakida paper reaffirms AU increase is not caused by cosmological expansion: such expansion falls 9 orders of magnitude too small to account for the AU anomaly. Gravitational time delay associated with Dark Matter density was also ruled out because the required density would be that of liquid water throughout the solar system. (in AWT the inertial behaviour of neutrino field differs from gravitational one substantially though, because the negative curvature of space-time inside of neutrinos is balanced with its positiveelly curved shell).

Zephir said...

[Earth Flyby and Pioneer Anomalies](http://arxiv.org/abs/0807.3158), [Debye entropic force and modified Newtonian dynamics](http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.1169), A possible scenario of the Pioneer anomaly in the framework of Finsler geometry](http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.3713) [Modified Newton's gravity in Finsler Space as a possible alternative to dark matter hypothesis](http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.2184)

Zephir said...

Earth may be crashing through dark matter walls

Zephir said...

Value Pi may fluctuate too

Zephir said...

Is Earth Weighed Down By Dark Matter?

Zephir said...

About some possible empirical evidences in favor of a cosmological time variation of the speed of light