Saturday, March 14, 2009

Is dark matter composed of antimatter?

The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry was a struggling problem of mainstream physics and cosmology for many years. By AWT antimatter never disappear from observable Universe, it was only finely divided (evaporated) into streaks of dark matter. These streaks are surrounding all massive bodies, including galaxies and stars, so that the concentration of antiparticles is especially easy to detect around black holes at the centers of most large galaxies. This prediction was presented a two years before and now recent ATIC and PAMELA observations seems to support it, while interpreting the source as a result of WIMPS annihilation. This is particularly because contemporary particle physics is quite desperate for funding. Guessing that dark matter consists of exotic particles may mean more funding to search for such particles.

AWT explanation doesn't consider WIMPS mechanism though, because WIMPS are supersymmetric bosons mediating surface tensions forces of strangeletes, i.e. large dense clusters of particles, which are supposed to form dark matter here. Such clusters would be of primordial origin, i.e. something like microscopic black holes in the S1/Z2 Randall - Sundrum (RS) braneworld model, which currently belongs into unverified hypothesis, as the only stable strangelets-like particles known so far are the atom nuclei. It's highly improbable, swarms of such thingies would be responsible for observed dark matter effects like gravitational lensing or Pioneer anomaly and even if they would exist, it's not necessary to consider their bosons (i.e. WIMPS) as the main source of dark matter gravitation - because no WIMP can exist standalone without its superpartner. Such explanation therefore just illustrates deep conceptual confusion of mainstream physics, which is overspecialized, so it cannot confront & reconcile inconsistently labeled ideas coming from various areas of physics mutually.

Instead of this, AWT explains mechanism of primordial origin of antimatter more naturally. We can consider black holes as a dense mixture of hot matter and antimatter in the form of graviton foam, analogous to foam of density fluctuations, formed briefly after condensation of supercritical fluid. In this foam particles are foam excitations are tied to inner surface gradients of foam bubbles, while the antiparticles are formed by outer surface of membranes (string theory uses a concept of string loops attached to branes, instead). But these particle gradients are never quite equivalent: the inner gradient are always of smaller diameter and higher curvature, therefore they're more stable, then the outer surface gradients. This is a general consequence of fact, we are always smaller, then the observable Universe generation, despite how far we can observe it, so that the particles forming environment are always of opposite chirality with compare to particles forming an objects in it.
Currently quantum foam forming vacuum is expanded heavily and its bubbles are formed by very thin walls, so here's rather subtle difference between particles and antiparticles behavior, as characterized by so called CP symmetry violation - but at the beginning of universe the situation was completely different. Graviton foam was very dense there and it was formed by rather spherical bubbles with thick walls. Inside of such foam the particles of antimatter were transformed into particles of matter readily, by the same way, like small bubbles in foam are collapsing on behalf of those larger ones or small flakes of snow sublime on behalf of large crystals, thus making snow "grainy". If such mixture would cool slowly, it would transform completely back into radiation again - but we were lucky: due the fast expansion of space-time during inflation era a subtle portion of matter and antimatter particles was left unreacted, so we are still here, being surrounded by voluminous streaks of dark matter composed of sparse unreacted particles of matter and antimatter separated by EM charge interactions against gravitational collapse (note the connection of AWT to H. Alfven's ambiplasma cosmology here.).

Because their negative curvature, the antiparticles tends to move toward gravity field so it separates from resulting condensate of matter and surrounds it by the same way, like particles forming the outer gradient of soap bubble membrane are surrounding those, which are forming inner surface of it. Standard model in combination with inflationary cosmology provides an mainstream explanation of this evolution. At the very beginning of Universe was very dense, so that weak nuclear force responsible for matter-antimatter interaction was a large distance interaction here. Because as we know, the matter annihilate with antimatter in direct contact, i.e. whenever weak interaction takes place, matter was annihilated with matter readily. But because the Universe expanded fast during inflation, weak nuclear force has become a short distance interaction (and it remained until now) - so that subtle portion of antimatter particles remained separated from the rest of matter safely.

The similar phenomena occurs during accretion of matter and during explosions of collapsars, i.e. the quasars, neutron and quark stars. While matter and antimatter annihilate in direct contact under formation of gamma radiation (i.e. EM field), in abundance of strong electromagnetic or gravitational field this process can be reversed under so called matter-antimatter pairs production. Strong magnetic field causes a separation of resulting particles and antiparticles near magnetars and spinning black hole, whereas gravity field is less effective in doing this in general, but it can separate even particles, which are differing just by their lepton charge, not only EM charge. In general, massive particles are attracted to inner part of gravity field gradient of positive curvature, whereas antiparticles were attracted by field gradient after its inflexion point, i.e. by its negative curvature. This resulted into separation of matter and antimatter particles. Note that the same mechanism (only applied to different dimensional scale) could explain chirality distribution, observed in nearby galaxies along streaks of dark matter and polarization of CMB.

While such process appears completely different from perspective of classical physics, it has a number of analogies in it, in fact, because it's driven by curvature of surface gradients in all cases. During fast condensation a mixture of water droplets of different sizes appears. But the smaller droplets have always a higher tension of vapor, so they're evaporating of behalf of these larger ones. When such condensation occurs as a consequence of fast vapor expansion (for example in Wilson cloud chamber expanded by piston), then the smaller droplets travels at the large distance from center of expansion, until they don't evaporate completely. After then they're forming an areas of more saturated vapor surrounding more "lucky" droplets, which have condensed at rest and which tends to evaporate. By AWT the dimensional scale, separating the matter evaporation from condensation roughly corresponds the human dimensional scale and wavelength of CMB photons, as it brings the highest complexity into Universe evolution. Particles smaller then CMB photons would condense into particles of matter, whereas the larger particle would expand into streaks of dark matter. From certain point of view antimatter is livin in inverse/reciprocal time arrow inside of observable Universe - it evaporates while the normal matter condenses, which is the reason, why the antimatter is finely dispersed over whole Universe.

The above example can be generalized in terms of unsteady-state thermodynamics, as described by Le Chattelier principle. For example, when we cool sooting candle flame by blowing of cold wind or by insertion of cold teaspoon, we can obtain a thin layer of soot. In this analogy, the flame corresponds the collapsar radiating an energy and the soot and oxygen are analogy of common matter and antimatter. As we know, these particles of these components reacts readily in mutual contact (i.e. they're "annihilate") - but when separated fast from flame by cooling of mixture or by adiabatic expansion of environment, they can remain intact and fast cooling freezes this metastable equilibrium on behalf of presence of the original components.

By AWT we can find an analogies to matter-antimatter separation even in biological and social evolution, where exist so called division of labor between different molecules and sexes, which are exhibiting a sort of chirality, too. AWT model explains, why this chirality was important during life formation in liposomes at human scale. Currently energy density of society is relatively high, which enables a high level of emancipation. But at the very beginning of human society the survival / fitness of community has depended on division of labor heavily, so today men are traveling for jobs at distance, while women are working near their homes - although they're not required to do so. But despite of low level of symmetry violation the complete exchange of male/female roles would lead to annihilation of social structures (i.e. family condensate in particular) by the same way, like switching of role left-handed proteins and right-handed sugars would lead to death of most of living organisms immediately. These analogies help us to understand, how deeply the chirality is working inside of our Universe at different dimensional scales.

AWT considers the existence of chirality as a byproduct of Universe inflation, i.e. the consequence of its fast cooling after brane collision, but such process occurs analogously at most dimensional scales, for example during collapse of stars and black holes, just in less or more pronounced way. The concept of omnidirectional Universe expansion enables to describe this process in terms of spatialized time, i.e. as a process of nonuniform propagation of transversal and longitudinal energy waves through hyperspace, but removal of space-time symmetry prohibits us in using of many temporal analogies, which could simplify the deeper understanding of this unsteady process.

We can just ask, why astronomers, who are looking for missing antimatter in Universe from the very beginning of BigBang theory (Lemaître 1931) didn't considered the posibility, dark matter may be composed of antimatter from the very beginning of dark matter observation (Fritz Zwicky, 1933). In another way - why publicity should pay scientists for seventy years of research of another explanations, if they ignore these most simplest one? This situation isn't very new here and it just illustrates, science needs a thorough public control by the same way, like every other branch of society. Arrogance of mainstream science proponents isn't in place here, as it often covers the incompetence.


Hasan said...

I am very impressed by both the timeliness and the thoroughness of this article. The understanding of the workings of antimatter and its place within the structure/origin of the Universe are quickly gaining momentum. PAMELA is churning out data and observations as we speak.

This is all of very interest to myself as the author of a new cosmologic model that is centrally founded on a notion of gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter. The model appears to match with all observations of the Universe, including the preliminary data coming out of PAMELA.

To view core arguments of the model go to
Or, if you'd rather view a sometimes rowdy/bloody debate go to

Zephir said...

Thank you Hassan for your comment and invitation, I'll visit your discussion occassionaly.

By AWT separation of chiral portions of matter is analogy to separation of chiral compounds by the inner and outer surface of liposome membranes during formation of life.

Hasan said...

Hi Zephir,

Things have changed. I've moved focus to a more moderated and focused forum:

And packaged up a "knol" for half the model at:

As far as your AWT separation is concerned, I wonder if such folding could be tied to a self-assembly: whether that be that which is used by the nanotechnologist or that which could have occurred between matter and antimatter.

Zephir said...


I presume, positrons are forming dark matter from inflation period, which could explain missing anti-matter in Big-Bang theory. But I don't think, dark matter is formed only positrons - after all, dark matter is forming 26% of Universe, whereas visible matter only 4% - the excess of positrons would lead into exactly opposite problem.

If you imagine gravity field of massive body, you can see, it has a bell shape profile. The strongest gravity force is on the surface of object, the force at the center and large distance from object is zero. So we can imagine, the dark matter is formed by area of weak negative curvature of space-time outside of massive objects and positrons, which Dirac considered a bubbles of vacuum with negative curvature are attracted and trapped into it by antigravity.

IMO this explanation is quite simple, it explains missing antimatter and it fits both general relativity, both Dirac's and Big Bang theory, both Alfven's Plasma cosmology and antigravity theory of antimatter

Zephir said...

Antiparticles are behaving like bubbles in vacuum. Because gravitational field of massive objects exhibits bell shape profile, the particle with negative curvature (mostly positrons and antineutrinos) tend to concentrate along the outer surface of gravitational field inside of clouds of dark matter.

For example, I presume, the relative abundance of primordial antineutrinos around Sun increases the decay speed of radioactive elements here. The average speed of these antineutrinos is slightly bellow their escape velocity (~ 700 km/sec), so they're behaving like thin atmosphere around Sun. The Sun itself emanates neutrinos along its poles (like weak neutrino pulsar), which can dilute the cloud of primordial neutrinos here, thus actually decreasing the speed of radioactive decay during solar flares.

Zephir said...

The dark side of antimatter - space - 25 November 2010 - New Scientist Two of the biggest mysteries in physics – what dark matter is made of and why matter dominates over antimatter – might be solved in one go.

The prospect of solving the two mysteries in one go is not new, but thanks to a batch of fresh models put forward in the last few months, the idea now seems "like it's not an exotic possibility", says Scott Watson of Syracuse University in New York, who helped organise a meeting at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor last month dedicated to alternative dark matter theories.

The antimatter composition of dark matter belongs into important predictions of Aether Wave Theory, based on dense aether model of Oliver Lodge. In this theory it's not an "exotic possibility", but a logical solution of space-time symmetry.

Zephir said...

The antimatter composition of dark matter is not just some abstract theory, but it can explain the important culprit of global warming, which we are facing by now. I'm assuming, the Earth is approaching a giant cloud of interstellar gas at the equatorial plane of Gallaxy, which is surrounded / filled with huge amount of antimatter in the form of antineutrinos. These antineutrinos annihilate in contact with material of Earth and they're accelerating decay of radioactive elements in Earth mantle. As the result, the Earth is heating from bottom up, so that warming of oceans and lakes continues, although global warming of atmosphere slowed down due the low solar activity (do you remember the "2012" disaster movie in this connection?)

The low solar activity could be explained with presence of antineutrinos as well, because it slows down the nuclear fusion (during which surface curvature of matter decreases) in the same way, like it accelerates the nuclear fission (during which surface curvature of matter increases) - antinetrinos are playing a role of tiny bubbles of space-time here. The large mass of neutrinos around Sun results in shift of center of mass of solar system, which is normally driven with orbital period of Jupiter. The location of center of mass switches the direction of plasma currents beneath surface of Earth with Coriolis force.

The are another indicia for this model. For example, it's known, the speed of radioactive decay depends on the rotation period of Sun core. I presume, the Sun core emanates neutrinos in invisible polar jets, similar to black hole. These jets are diluting the cloud of antineutrinos, which are accelerating radioactive decay, thus actually decreasing the speed of radioactive decay temporarily.

Zephir said...

Limits on CP invariance in general relativity

"The test of the equivalence principle pointed out by Longo and by Krauss and Tremaine can be easily extended to comparing the infall velocities of matter and antimatter. The very close coincidence in arrival times for neutrinos and antineutrinos places strong constraints on the coupling of gravitational interactions to matter and antimatter. The relative difference in gravitational delay is less than 5×10^-6"

Anonymous said...

Update Concepts: Electron, Matter/Antimatter

Electron: The Present Universe Runs ONLY Forward

A. From "Sizing up the Electron"
Measuring the inner shape of the famous particle could help solve a cosmic mystery

- "Physicists suspect that electric dipole moments exist because they allow particles to violate what's known as time-reversal symmetry. Although symmetry sounds like a good thing, scientists know that processes involving other particles (such as B mesons) behave differently whether running forward or backward, a violation of time-reversal symmetry. In order for this to happen, the electron (and other fundamental particles) must have an internal structure, something an electric dipole moment can reveal."

- "The Big Bang should have created matter and antimatter in equal amounts".


From "Commonsensical Cosmic Rebirth", comment on "Cosmic reincarnation idea may be dead"

- A Basic Physics Tenet: SpaceDistance, in lieu of SpaceTime.
- The universe in which we live: It is a dualistic, mass-energy, cyclic array."

The universe evolves. No forward and backward. Only forward, only m (including life) being reconverted into energy.

See "A Simpler Origin for Life", comment.

"Complexity in life is what physics calls Broken Symmetry, which is what biology calls Evolution."

C. The Big Bang was the start of the still ongoing D>0, of the still growing D
in E=Total[m(1 + D)]

The Big Bang did not create matter or antimatter, in any amount. It was the start of the still ongoing reconversion of m into E. It was the culmination of the 10^-35 seconds long singularity. Matter and antimatter are products of evolution of mass along its route of reconversion into energy, started at Big Bang.

Dov Henis
(Comments From The 22nd Century)
Dispel Some Figments Of 2010 Science Imagination
03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
28Dec09 Updated "Implications Of E=Total[m(1 + D)] "
Cosmic Evolution Simplified
"Gravity Is The Monotheism Of The Cosmos"
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion

Zephir said...

With the incident of supernova SN1987A, Cherenkov radiation was observed surrounded by neutrino detectors a few hours before any noticeable light be observed. SN1987A was believed to be around 170000 light years away. This would suggest that the neutrinos which have been detected be travelling about 0.0000002% faster after the speed of light, making them tachyons.

Zephir said...

X Particle Explains Dark Matter and Antimatter at the Same Time

Zephir said...

Antiproton ring found encircling the Earth

Zephir said...

As a consequence of the hypothetical gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter, supermassive black holes should be point-like sources of antineutrinos; a phenomenon that may be observed at the Ice Cube at the South Pole.

Zephir said...

During during time the following particles were proposed as the probable constituents of dark matter by mainstream peer-reviewed theories. I ordered them by their average rest mass, which differs in twenty(!) orders of magnitude: scalar field, quintessence, mirror matter, axions, inflatons, heavy photons, fat strings, sterile neutrinos, chameleon particles, dark fluid and dark baryons, fotinos, gravitinos and WIMPs, SIMPs, MACHOs, RAMBOs, DAEMONs and micro-black holes. And I probably missed many others...
The mainstream physics nuts are just trying to save the reputation of mainstream physics, when most of theories developed during last forty years just blown out (Higgs boson, supersymmetry, extradimensions, micro-black holes, superstring theory - not to say about many ad-hoced phenomenological predictions, like the fat strings, W' bosons, Z' bosons, preons, Randall-Sundrum gravitons, leptoquarks, low-mass superpartners, di-jet suppression of QGC, CPT violation etc.).
We can just compare the effort and money introduced into this re-search for essentially useless artefacts with the years standing ignorance of extremely important findings of cold fusion, antigravity or room temperature superconductivity. This way of research will not save us against global energetic and environmental crisis, risk of nuclear wars for the rest of oil sources, etc.. It's just a direct way to the hell...
From AWT follows, most of dark matter is formed with antimatter directly and it's just a shame, this hypothesis wasn't considered from its very beginning. The physicists apparently love the spending of money in artificially constructed problems: on the one side they're looking for antimatter "missing" after Big Bang - on the other side they're developing a redundant explanations of dark matter (the more theories, the more theorists can publish their articles). Such dull ignorant approach just helps them to keep their jobs and overemployment in theoretical physics.

Zephir said...

At the beginning of the last century the Austrian/Czech physicist Ernst Max proposed a hypothesis, that the inertia of massive bodies is a result of all massive objects in the Universe. This hypothesis has been rejected, because it implied a superluminal action at distance, but recently [url=]A. Carati demonstrated[/url] the same for dark matter, just with opposite sign.

Zephir said...

A further quirk in the AMS results suggests that if the particles are dark matter, they may not be vanilla WIMPs. But if a fraction of dark matter particles interact with each other, they would combine into atom-like structures and eventually collapse into a spinning disc.The resulting shadow Milky Way could be spinning right along with the visible one, or it could end up tilted at a slight angle.

Zephir said...

New experiment torpedoes lightweight dark matter particles

Zephir said... : Black Hole Atom as A Dark Matter Particle Candidate

Zephir said...

Astronomer Pavel Kroupa argues on the basis of observation of dwarf galaxies that the WIMP idea is completely ruled out